Model of Cancer - Pyruvate Kinase Evidence
Majid Ali, M.D.
I proposed the Oxygen Model of
Cancer (ref 1,2) as an extension of my Oxygen Model
of Health and Disease. It is a unifying model that
explains all aspects of cancer—causes, pathogenesis,
clinical course, consequences, and control—on the
basis of altered oxygen signaling.
Models in science are proposed
to: (1) explain such natural phenomena; (2) offer
workable simplicity to reduce complexities of such
phenomena; (3) predict natural phenomena until now
unrecognized. These models are tested, validated, or
refuted with ongoing scientific observation. In
clinical medicine, I add a fourth criterion for a
model’s validity: it must facilitate health and
Pyruvate Kinase Evidence
The Oxygen Model of Cancer
predicts that all bioenergetic pathways that
facilitate oxygen signaling will prevent and/or
control cancer whereas those that interrupt oxygen
signaling will promote cancer.In 2012, a report from
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
Cambridge (ref 3) provided a new line of
experimental evidence for the oxygen model.
Specifically, it demonstrated that the growth of
human cancers implanted in mice can be slowed by
altering the activity of the enzyme pyruvate kinase
in the oxygen-driven Krebs cycle pathways.
In the conversion of glucose into
ATP energy and building blocks, the last metabolic
pathway is catalyzed by pyruvate kinase. Cancer
cells contain a form of this enzyme called PKM2. It
was found that some small-molecule activators of
PKM2 impede and/or block cancerous growth formation
in mice. Compared with untreated control animals,
tumors developed later and remained smaller in
Significance of the Oxygen Model
In clinical practice, the Oxygen
Model of cancer asserts that all relevant "oxygen
issues" in an individual with cancer—whether or not
related directly to the type of cancer and the organ
of origin of cancer—must be effectively addressed.
To cite one example, in my experience clinical
results in the treatment of prostate cancer are far
superior when all relevant nutritional and detox
issues are effectively addressed.
Video Series on The Oxygen Model of Cancer
I present various aspects of The
Oxygen Model of Cancer in a ten-segment YouTube
video series on my Science, Health, and Healing
Encyclopedia at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHrTg0ooTIw
* The Oxygen Model of Cancer Part
1 - Basics
1. Ali M. The Crab, Oxygen and
Cancer. Volume I: The Dysox Model of Cancer. 2007.
New York, Canary 21 Press.
2. Ali M. The Crab, Oxygen and
Cancer. Volume II: The Oxygen Protocol for Cancer.
2007. New York, Canary 21 Press.
3. Nature Chem. Biol.
List of Oxygen Models of
The Oxygen Model of
Cancer - Pyruvate Kinase Evidence