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HURT HUMAN HABITAT AND ENERGY DEFICIT

—Healing Through the Restoration of Krebs Cycle Chemistry

 

Majid Ali, M.D.

Human energy deficit states are the consequences of a "hurt" human habitat. The central mechanism of energy deficit is disrupted oxygen homeostasis.

The energy state of an amoeba cannot be dissociated from the energy state of its habitat. A mouse's energetics are far more complex, however the relationship between the mouse's cellular energetics and its habitat is the same. And so is the case of humans and their habitat. In this column, I offer some reflections on the relationship between energetics and habitat, and explain my view with a thought experiment.

Human energy deficit is a pandemic now. Regardless of the diagnostic rubric one prefers—chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, environmental sensitivity, polymyalgia, post-chemo fatigue, post-traumatic stress syndrome—the story is the same from Lahore to Louisville, Madrid to Moscow, and Honduras to Sydney. Energy deficit, then, can be properly viewed only as a global human habitat problem. Since, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the currency of cellular energetics, a study of human energy deficit is essentially a study of the impact of habitat disruption on ATP generation, essentially through Krebs cycle chemistry.1-7 (Information about specific inhibitors of ATPase is included after reference # 6.)

To examine the link between a habitat and its inhabitants' impaired Krebs cycle chemistry, I propose the following thought experiment: We put 100 mice in a large cage and add to their drinking water a mixture of inhibitors of ATP synthase mentioned above. In addition, we add to their chow a mixture of compounds which are known to induce uncoupling proteins that further impede mitochondrial electron transfer chain.8-11 A solution of doxycycline (2 mg/mL) and sucrose, for example, is known to induce expression of uncoupling proteins and consequent uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.11 Finally, the cage is not cleaned for the duration of the experiment. With appropriated situated TV cameras, we continuously record the effect of that fundamental rupture of their Krebs cycle biochemistry on their health. We will observe that within days some mice will become tired and listless. Some mice will walk with stiff legs. Some of the rodents will lose fur, others will develop skin infections. Some animals will become ill with diverse inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune disorders involving the various organ-systems of the mice. With passing days, some mice will show sign of impaired thyroid, adrenal, and pancreatic function. Undoubtedly, the disruptions of mitochondrial function and clogged Krebs cycle chemistry will also adversely effect the pituitary, hypothalamic, and neurotransmitter function of many mice. By varying the compositions of the concoctions used for ATP synthase inhibition and doxycycline-inducible of uncoupling proteins, we can create conditions that set the stage for carcinogenesis. I might point out that this thought experiment is, in reality, a compendium of observations made in various animal models with ATP synthase inhibitors and compounds that uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation.

The point of the above thought experiment: It is not useful to focus on signs and symptoms developed by mice in the cage—or disease that merely represent varying combinations of those symptoms—when what is killing the mice is inhibitors of their cellular energetics in their toxic habitat. I use the word toxic in the larger rubric of habitat. Unique patterns of genetic susceptibilities in individual mice determine the patterns of symptom-complexes, but the underlying problem is the same: toxic habitat. In this model, the mice problems caused by microbial species are secondary.

Now I return to the opening two sentences of this column: Human energy deficit states are caused by hurt human habitat. The central mechanism of energy deficit is disrupted oxygen homeostasis. The true nature of the suffering of people with paralyzing fatigue, persistent tissue pain, and disabling disorders of mood, memory, and mentation cannot be understood, nor ameliorated, except through an understanding of the relationship between the toxicity of the human habitat and disruptions of the Krebs cycle chemistry. This was my message in The Canary and Chronic Fatigue (1994).12 Clinicians do not serve their tired and sick patients well when they focus on a virus in one month and a yeast in the next, on the thyroid deficiency at one time and the adrenal weakness at another, on the leaky bowel in one season and the toxic liver in the next. We now live in a "Lyme-obsessed" era. I ask how did anyone ever managed to stay healthy with the Borrelia borgdorferi in the body during the first half of the last century before the spirochaete was identified? Clearly, then no one called Lyme disease as the "disease of the new century," nor were people given antibiotics for years to cure Lyme disease. The answer is simple: That was the pre-pesticide, pre-antibiotic, pre-toxic-mind era, and the human habitat had not been viciously violated yet.

Pattern of Impaired Krebs Cycle Biochemistry Indicating a Multi-Level Disruption

In Dysoxygenosis and Oxystatic Therapies, the third volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine (2001),13 I discussed at length the disorders of cellular energetics. The crucial point here is that the data strongly suggest the existence of multiple metabolic blocks, most pronounced in the earlier steps of the cycle of the Krebs cycle biochemistry.In the panel A of Figure 1, I summarize the findings in one study of the disruption of Krebs cycle chemistry in 236 patients.14 To support my view of the existence of multiple metabolic blocks in the Krebs cycle, in panel B of the figure I schematically draw an analogy of five water reservoirs (indicated by letters R), each draining into the reservoir below it. If the outflow of those reservoirs is dammed—by, let's say, beavers — the amount of water held in the reservoir on the top level will increase, and that in the lower reservoirs will diminish to increasing degrees. Note that among the increased 24-hour urinary excretions of the Krebs cycle metabolites(panel A), citric acid accounted for the largest number of cases (196), followed by aconitic acid (26), succinic acid (40), and fumaric acid (1). No increase was seen at the oxaloacetic acid level, indicating maximal impairment of the cycle at steps before the last one.

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Data Showing Disruption of the Krebs Cycle Chemistry In 236 Patients Is Shown (Panel A), Indicating the Maximal Impairment of Mitochondria Dysfunction Involving the Early Steps of the Krebs Cycle. In panel B, An Analogy of Five Water Reservoirs (indicated by Letters Rs) Is Drawn to Illustrate the Effects of Multiple Metabolic Defects in the Krebs Cycle (See Text for Explanation).

Panel A

Acetyl Co A

Oxaloacetic acid (0) Citric acid (196)

Fumaric acid (1) Aconitic acid (26)

Succinic (40)

Panel B

R

R

R

R

R

 

The Sun-Soil Model of Restoration of the Krebs Cycle Chemistry

In Integrative Nutritional Medicine, the fifth volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine (2003),15 I presented the Sun-Soil Model (Figure 2) of restoration of oxygen homeostasis and the Krebs cycle chemistry. Simply stated, in this model the base trio of the bowel (the entire alimentary tract), blood, and liver ecosystems are represented by the soil-root unit of a rose bush. The middle trio of the thyroid, adrenals, and pancreas are equivalent to the branches, and the top trio of the hormones, neurotransmitters, and the limbic system constitutes the leaves and flowers. Finally, the sun symbolizes spiritual dynamics of healing. Integrative medicine is not "protocol medicine," in which patients are prescribed drugs according to predetermined protocols. Each individual with chronic energy deficit state requires an individualized program . In that light, below I present my clinical priorities for the Sun-Soil Model:

 

 

 

Figure 2. Schematic Representation of the Trio of Trios of Human Ecosystems to Establish Clinical Priorities for Preserving and/or Restoring Oxygen Homeostasis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Bowel Ecosystem

The main issues concerning the alimentary tract are: (1) oral pathology; (2) decreased tone of the stomach (usually with reduced acidity, with or without reflux); (3) enzyme deficiencies; (4) diminished bowel tone (with or without prolonged transit time); (5) and overgrowth of oxyphobic microbial species.16 In the management of those concerns, I liberally prescribe: (1) hydrochloric acid and enzyme supplementation; (2) probiotics; (3) antifungal herbs (echinacea, goldenseal, astragalus, burdock root, others) and drugs (Nystatin and others, in biweekly rotation); (4) antiparasitic herbs (artemesia, walnut hull, red cloves, and others, even when parasitic tests are negative); (5) oral magnesium and potassium; (6) psyllium and herbal laxatives, if necessary; and (7) high-frequency, low-intensity rebounding (preferably with a trampoline with a safety bar). In general, I do not use antiviral drugs for viral activation states (which almost always coexist), nor do I advise immediate removal of dental mercury amalgams (I have seen too many serious and persisting clinical setbacks with that).

The Liver Ecosystem

The main issues concerning the liver are: (1) compromised p-450 and other enzymatic detox systems which neutralize endogenous and exogenous toxins; (2) fatty change in the liver; and (3) biliary and gall bladder dysfunctions. In the management of those concerns, I liberally prescribe: (1) lecithin; (2) live-protective herbs (milk thistle, dandelion, black radish, and others); (3) castor oil liver pack; and (4) lemon juice/maple syrup liver/kidney flushes.

The Blood Ecosystem

The main issues concerning the blood ecosystem are: (1) acidosis and oxidosis; (2) insufficiency of proteolytic activity in the circulating blood due to excessive clotting: (3) oxidative coagulopathy (and oxidative lymphopathy); and (4) vasospasm (due to hyperadrenergic state and oxidative coagulopathy17); and (5) subclinical vasculitis (with or without the tell-tale vascular skin lesions). To manage those matters, I liberally prescribe: (1) blood cleansers (turmeric powder, ginger, garlic, green tea, (2) blood alkalizers (cilantro, chlorophyll, chlorella, calcium citrate, and others); (3) hydrogen peroxide foot soaks; and (4) intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusions.

The Thyroid

The main issues concerning the thyroid are: (1) subclinical hypothyroidism (nearly always present); (2) low body temperature; and (3) subclinical iodine deficiency. To address issues, I prescribe natural thyroid (Armour, Westhyroid, or others) in small doses of 30 mg with small 15 mg increments in nearly all patients who are seven pounds or more in excess of their optimal weight. Needless to say, I closely monitor thyroid function with laboratory tests. In addition, I administer Lugol's iodine in small doses (5 drops containing 37.5 mg taken in four ounces of water) for periods of four to eight weeks.

The Adrenals

The main issues concerning the adrenal glands are: (1) subclinical hypofunction of adrenals (as determined by the measurement of 24-hour excretion of adrenal cortical hormones and urinary catecholamine excretion; and (2) Adrenergic hypervigilence caused by chronic anger and resentment associated with chronic energy deficit. To address issues, I prescribe small doses of hydrocortisone acetate (beginning with 2.5 mg twice daily and increasing it to 15 or 20 mg according to the clinical response of the patient. Other options include DHEA, pregnenolone, androstenedione, schizandra, and Siberian ginseng.

The Pancreas

The main issues concerning the pancreas are: (1) inadequate production of pancreatic digestive enzymes, especially of the proteolytic variety; (2) the insulin dysfunction with roller-coasters which trigger adrenaline and neurotransmitter roller coasters. To address issues the hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic shifts, I prescribe 2 tablespoons of protein powder breakfast (with 1-2 tablespoons of lecithin and freshly ground small flaxseed each taken with 6 to 12 ounces of vegetable juices.) I also recommend proteolytic enzymes of plant- and animal-derived sources, to be taken between meals.

The Hormonal and Neurotransmitter Systems

Chronic energy deficit states create difficulties of mood, memory, and mentation by several mechanism, including: (1) sadness and depression caused by unrelenting suffering; (2) unmasking of pre-existing mood disorders and depression; (3) accentuation of functional deficits of estrogens, progestins, and androgens (the last-mentioned being especially needed for vaginal dryness and lack of libido); and (4) sleep disorders.18 To address those concerns, I liberally prescribe methylsufonylmethane (MSM), A-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), St. John's wort, melatonin, and when necessary, pharmaceutical support for sleep. As for growth hormone, I have found it to be helpful in less than one-third of my patients. The prohibitive cost of this therapy also makes it difficult to use for most patients.

Exercise

The crucial issue in physical exercise during the recovery process in the chronic energey deficit states is the need for high-frequency,low-intensity exercise which does not add to the problem of rapid build-up of Krebs cycle metabolites in the cells. I recommend incremental exercise with the following three criteria: (1) the individual should not experience any negative sensations (muscle soreness, increased fatigue, or mentatio difficulties after 10 minutes of finishing exercise; (2) the individual should not experience any negative sensations after six hours of finishing exercise; and (3) the individual should not experience any negative sensations after 24 hours of finishing exercise.For detailed specific guidelines, I refer the readers to my book Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise19 on the subject.

The Sun-Soil Model and the Cell Membrane Dynamics .

The long-term clinical benefits observed with the applications of the Sun-Soil Model, as described above, can be explained in many ways. Chronic infectious processes are commonly observed in subjects with chronic energy deficit states, and the frequency and intensity of such infections is drastically reduced with the successful use of this model. One can explain such benefits in many ways. Here, I include brief comments about the restoration of cell membrane functionalities with the Sun-Soil Model as one of the primary mechanisms underlying clinical . In 1987, I published Leaky Cell Membrane Disorder,20 a monograph in which I focused on clinical consequences of oxidative cell membrane injury with resulting derangements of ion- gating and ligand-related signalling. The relationship between cell membrane integrity and host defenses against microbial invaders are seldom, if ever, duly considered in clinical medicine. In reality, receptors belonging to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play crucial roles in innate immunity.21 The two notable subgroups in this context are the TLRs (Toll-related receptors) and the recently characterized NLRs (NOD-like receptors). The former are essentially transmembrane proteins whose ligand-binding domains point to the extracellular milieu, while the latter (NOD1 and NOD2) are essentially intracellular receptors with transmembrane segments. PRRs (including TLRs and NLRs) are essential for the activation of well known mediators of inflammatory and healing responses, such as NF-êB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAKPs).

In closing, chronic energy deficit states are caused by cumulative stresses on the cellular energetic system, including mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of Krebs cycle chemistry, uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative coagulopathy, oxidative lymphopathy, and oxidative dysautonomia. These stresses might originally arise from chemical insults, functional nutritional deficits, infectious processes, and chronic anger. However, once established the impairment of Krebs cycle chemistry feeds upon itself, and affects all micro-ecologic cellular and macro-ecologic tissue-organ systems of the body. Thus, the corrective plan of action has to be broad and all-encompassing.

References

1. Ali M. Spontaneity of Oxidation in Nature and Aging, (monograph). Teaneck, NJ, 1983.

2. Ali M: Darwin, fatigue, and fibromyalgia.J Integrative Medicine 1999;3:5-10.

3. Ali M: Darwin, oxidosis, dysoxygenosis, and integration. J Integrative Medicine 1999;3:11-16.

4. Ali M: Fibromyalgia: an oxidative-dysoxygenative disorder (ODD). J Integrative Medicine 1999; 3:17- 37.

5. Ali Recent advances in integrative allergy care. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 2000;8:260-266.

6. Baynes J, Dominiczak MH. Medical Biochemistry. 1999. Mosby, New York. pages :83-94.

(ATP synthase is the enzyme responsible for ATP synthesis. It is also called complex V of the energy-producing electron transfer chain in mitochondria. ATP synthase is observed by electron microscopy as 8nm spheres on the surface of coupling membranes, such as that of the mitochondrion. The synthase has two components: largely extramembranous segment called F1 and intrinsic membrane sector called Fo. There are several well-known inhibitors and/or blockers of the F1 and Fo components of ATP synthase. For example, azide, used as a bacteriostatic agent, is one of the F1 inhibitors. Some others include complex organic molecules, such as aurovertins; the peptide efrapeptin, and tentoxin). Energy transfer inhibitors include oligomycin, venturicidin, and dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCCD). These inhibitors bind Fo and block proton transfer and thus inhibit synthesis of ATP. It is noteworthy that F1 is not only involved in ATP generation but also in ATP hydrolysis under certain condition, a revealing example of nature's preoccupation with complementarity and contrariety at the foundational levels of cellular energetics. I might add here that some ATP synthase inhibitors also block ATP hydrolysis by F1, when it is assembled into an F1 Fo complex.

7. Harris DA. Bioenergetic at a Glance. 1995. Oxford. Blackwell Science. pages 72-86.

.8. Allayee H, Gharalpour A, Lusis AJ. Using mice to dissect genetic factors in atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2003;23:1501-1509.

9. Santerre, R. F., Nicolosi, R. J. & Smith, S. C. Respiratory control in preatherosclerotic susceptible and resistant pigeon aortas. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 1974.20:397-406.

10. Dröge, W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol. Rev. 2002;82:47-95.

11. Bernal-Mizrachi C, Gates AC, Weng, et al. Vascular respiratory uncoupling increases blood pressure and atherosclerosis. Nature. 2005;435:502-506.

12. Ali M: The Canary and Chronic Fatigue (2nd ed). Denville, New Jersey, Life Span Books 1995.

13. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume III: Dysoxygenosis and Oxystatic Therapies. New York. Canary 21 Press. 1999. 2nd edition 2005.

14. Ali M. Respiratory-to-Fermentative (RTF) Shift in ATP Production in Chronic Energy Deficit States. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2004. August/Sept. issue. 64-65.

15. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume V: Integrative Nutritional Medicine: Nutrition Seen Through the Prism of Oxygen Homeostasis. New York. Canary 21 Press. 1999. 2nd edition 2005.

16. Ali M: Oxidative regression to primordial cellular ecology. J Integrative Medicine 1998; 2:4-55.

17. Ali M. Oxidative coagulopathy in environmental illness. Environmental Management and Health. 2000;11:175-191.

18. Ali M: Amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and polymenorrhea in CFS and fibromyalgia are caused by oxidative menstrual dysfunction (OMD-I) J Integrative Medicine 1998; 2:101-124.

19. Ali M: The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise. Denville, New Jersey, Life Span Books 1993.

20. Ali M. Leaky Cell Membrane Disorder (monograph). Teaneck, NJ, 1987.

Meylan E, Tschopp J, Karin M. Intracellular pattern recognition receptors in the host response. Nature. 2006;442:39-44.

 

 

END

 

 

 DYSOX MODEL OF DIABETES AND DE-DIABETIZATION POTENTIAL

Majid Ali, M.D.

 

Is diabetes mellitus a sugar problem? No. The abnormalities of blood sugar seen in diabetes are the consequences of the derangements of cellular energetics and toxicity which collectively create what is commonly called diabetes. Is diabetes an insulin problem? No. The abnormalities of insulin functions are the consequences of plasticized (chemicalized) and hardened cell membranes which immobilize the insulin receptors embedded in them. Is diabetes a problem of blood vessels which cause blindness, kidney failure, stroke, heart attacks, and neuropathy? No. The abnormalities of blood vessels are the consequences of oxidizing and deoxygenizing influences in diabetes.

In this column, I marshall evidence for my view that the state of insulin resistance should be regarded as a "hardened cell membrane state." The so-called metabolic syndrome should be visualized as a "gummed-up matrix state." Prediabetes should be seen as a "mitochondrial dysfunction state." The strategies for the prevention and reversal of diabetes yield better long-term clinical results if diabetes is recognized as an "dysfunction oxygen signalling" or the dysox state.

In type-1diabetes, insulin itself becomes a potent autoantigen and initiates autoimmune injury to pancreatic islet cells.1-3 I will show how this recently documented role of insulin in the pathogenesis of diabetes fits in the Dysox Model of Diabetes presented here. In type-2 diabetes, insulin cannot function—insulin resistance, in the common jargon—and hyperinsulinemia develops which triggers and amplifies the inflammatory response.4-6 In all types of diabetes, the endothelial cells produce nitric oxide and other bioactive factors in abnormal quantities and proportions.7,8 Diabetes causes neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, dementia, stroke, and heart attacks. I will describe how those complications of diabetes can be better understood when the problems are seen through the prism of oxygen signalling.

In most countries, strong clinical, epidemiologic, and experimental evidence links the epidemics of obesity with those of diabetes in an ever-increasing number of countries.9-11 That link is supported by known metabolic roles of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and altered paracrine and endocrine functions of fat cells (adipocyte) in the energy economy of the body. For example, in a healthy state NEFAs serve as substrates for ATP (adenosine triphosphate) generation. In obesity, these fatty acids are retained in excess in biomembranes of all cell populations of the body and within adipocytes. NEFAs, along with trans fats and oxidized lipids, then "harden" the cell membranes to clamp down on insulin receptors—rusting and impacting the crank, so to speak—to cause insulin resistance.12 Those lipids also "gum up" the matrix, blocking molecular cross-talk there. Eventually, those elements, along with other toxins uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation and impede mitchondrial electron transfer events.

In obesity, the hormonal output of adipocytes is chaotic in ways in which it further increases cellular fat build-up and sets the stage for the development of diabetes.13,14 However, the obesity/diabetes link does not prevail in all populations of the world. For instance, in India there is also an epidemic of low body-weight (LBW) diabetes,15 —a phenomenon that clearly points to the existence of environmental factors unrelated to obesity that are involved in the pathogenicity of diabetes, and supports the Dysox Model of Diabetes.

A growing number of free radicals, transcription factors, enzymes, and proteins has been —and continues to be—implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, including: (1) nitric oxide16,17; (2) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)18; (3) mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs)19-21; (4) proinflammatory cytokines 22-24; (5) resistin 25,26; (6) leptin27,28; (7) adipokines29; (8) adiponectin30; (9) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-á)31; (10) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma),32-34 (11) nuclear respiratory factor-1 ( (NRF-1)35; (12) suppression of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins36; (13) retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4)37; (14) antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase38; (15) prothrombotic species, including fibrinogen,von Willebrand factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), adipsin (complement D), acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) 39-42; (16) heat shock protein 60, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC-1), and Grp7543; and (17) and hypercoagulable platelets.44 These factors constitute an enormous network of molecular and cellular cross-talk, nearly all aspects of which are linked to oxygen signalling and provide support for the Dysox Model of Diabetes. To cite some example, overexpression of several antioxidant and oxystatic systems—including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase—in various tissue-organ systems of diabetic animals and humans have been documented.45 Later in this column, I furnish direct evidence for impaired bioenergetics—altered Krebs cycle chemistry, glycolytic pathways, and mitochondrial functions—in individuals with diabetes by presenting personal data.

Angry Diabetes Genes—Getting Angry By the Decade

Is diabetes a genetic problem? No. My answer is likely to surprise most readers. I recognize that diabetes runs in families. However, the story of genetics becomes unraveled rapidly when we consider the epidemics of diabetes all over the world. Consider the following: On January 9, 2006 The New York Times projected the rising incidence of diabetes with the following words: "If unchecked, it is expected to ensnare coming generations on an unheard-of scale: One in every three Americans born five years ago. One in two Latinos." One in two Latinos! That is likely to surprise only those unfamiliar with the sad story of the galloping incidence of diabetes among the Pima Indians of the Southwestern United States. A single case of diabetes was recorded among the tribes by a travelling physician in 1908. Then Elliot Joslin (the founder of Joslin Clinic for diabetes in Boston) found 21 cases in the early 1930s. The number of individuals with diabetes among the tribes had increased to 283 cases in 1954, and to over 500 in 1965. By mid-1990s, the prevalence of diabetes among the Pima Indians had risen to over 60 percent.44 As for diabetes among children and adolescent, consider another quote from the Times article alluded to earlier: "So-called Type 2 diabetes, the predominant form and the focus of this series, is creeping into children, something almost never heard of two decades ago."

Much needed light on the genetics of diabetes is also shed by newer data concerning the epidemics of diabetes in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Ceylon, Africa, and India. For example, some years ago the prevalence of diabetes in PNG population was reported to be "virtually 0%" whereas recent surveys showed that type 2 diabetes has become a common disease.45 In March 2006, the Ceylon Medical Journal reported that in 1990 the prevalence of Type-2 diabetes was 2.5% and it had risen to 14.2% among males and 13.5% among females by 2005.46 Similar data concerning epidemics of diabetes are being reported from various African and Asian countries. Most notable in this context is the epidemic of low-body-weight diabetes in India. The core questions here are: (1) Why did the diabetes genes become angry during the last century? and (2) Why are those genes getting angrier by the decade? Genes—not unlike physicians—are not solo performers. Genes do not exist and function in a vacuum, nor do they serve their roles in the essential injury-healing-injury cycle of life as independent agents. Genes continuously recognize and respond to changes in their environment. A new field of "ecogenomics" is what is sorely needed, not only to understand the true nature of the disease processes we collectively designate as diabetes but also for designing integrative therapies for the prevention of diabetes and the process which may be called "de-diabetization"—complete (see illustrative case study below) or partial—in clinical practice.

In this column, I demonstrate the essential relatedness of the above epidemiologic, genetic, biochemical, and clinical observations and offer answers to questions I raise by: (1) presenting personal data showing impaired altered Krebs cycle chemistry and mitochondrial functions; (2) summarizing a large body of recent experimental and clinical data that shed light on the subjects of disrupted molecular bioenergetics and impaired detox mechanisms in diabetes; and (3) presenting some illustrative case studies to underscore the potential for what may be called the process of "de-diabetization."

Impaired Krebs Cycle and Glycolytic Pathways In Diabetes

Diabetes, first and foremost, is a disorder of impaired molecular bioenergetics and oxygen signalling. Mitochondrial electron transfer events form the foundation of human molecular energetics.47 This is where respiration is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, which serves as the energy currency of the body. If one were to accept that diabetes, first and foremost, is a molecular bioenergetic disorder, one would expect to find in it clear evidence of dysfunctional mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. That, indeed, is the case.

I draw evidence to support my view from a large body of clinical, biochemical, and experimental data. Clinically, it is noteworthy in this context, the initial clinical presentation of diabetes in poor countries is often unexplained fatigue. In Table 1, I present biochemical evidence of the existence of impaired Krebs cycle and glycolysis, as well as biotoxins (mycotoxins and others) in a series of 17 patients with Type-2 diabetes. The average age of eleven males in the study was 65 years (range 36 to 80), while those of six females was 68 years (range 66 to 71). The data presented show increased urinary excretion of intermediates of Krebs cycle and glycolys , which serve as direct evidence of defects in those pathways. The data concerning increased urinary excretion of biotoxins (mycotoxins and others) which are known to uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation, interfere with mitochondrial electron transfer, and so impede or block Krebs cycle provide indirect evidence for the same.

 

 

Table 1. Frequency of Increased Urinary Excretion of Organic Acids

In 17 Patients (11 Males, 6 Females) With Type 2 Diabetes

Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis

Dysoxic Biotoxins

Hepatic Dysox

Adrenal Dysox

Citric acid (6)

Succinic acid (1)

2-Hydroxybutyric acid (3)

Arabinose (10)

Tartaric acid (4)

Citramalic (3)

3-Oxoglutaric (2)

Hippuric acid (10)

Vinylmandellic acid (6)

The data in Table 1 validate my observations concerning the clinical management of diabetes made over a period of two decades. For three decades, on clinical grounds I became convinced that that altered bowel flora affects the energy homeostasis of the body and that obesity alters the nature of the bowel microbiota. Specifically, I recognized two sets of factors that play crucial roles both in the optimal control of blood sugar levels and the prevention of diabetic complications: (1) the issues of bowel ecology which include (untreated mold allergy and adverse food reactions, altered bowel flora, mycotoxicosis, increased bowel permeability, and digestive-absorptive dysfunction —essentially in that order of importance; and (2) impaired hepatic detoxification and metabolic pathways. Note all diabetic individuals in the study showed clear evidence of bowel-related biotoxins that directly or indirectly uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation. More than half of the patients (10 of 17) had increased urinary excretion of hippuric acid indicating impaired hepatic enzymatic detoxification functions. I discuss the therapeutic implications of the data in Table 1 in a section entitled "De-Diabetization Strategies."

Immunology of Beta Islet Cells and Insulin

Insulin is itself a potent autoantigen that initiates autoimmune (juvenile-onset, type-1) diabetes.1-3 What are the conditions under which insulin, a hormone without which life is not possible for more than a few days, becomes an autoantigen which unleashes diabetes? This is one of the central issues to be addressed in the dysox model of diabetes. Before attempting to answer this question, I briefly review here the immunology of pancreatic beta cell and insulin.

In type I diabetes, lymphocytes react against and destroy the beta-cells in the pancreas of genetically vulnerable individuals. The loss of insulin-producing cells leads to insulin deficit which, in turn, causes hyperglycemia (diabetes in the prevailing sense of that disease). Lymphocytes are expected to recognize other autoantigenic targets as beta-cell destruction proceeds with a process which has termed "antigenic spreading."48 Specifically, it is known that reduced expression of some islet cell autoantigens, or elimination of the lymphocytes that recognize them, can reduce the degrees of glucose dysregulation. However, beta-cell-specific autoimmune attacks cannot be aborted by such interventions.49,50 It is known that insulin-reactive lymphocytes from healthy individuals exert healthful regulatory functions by producing some needed signalling molecules. By contrast, insulin-reactive lymphocytes from diabetics assume destructive roles by releasing molecules that are harmful to beta-cells.51

About 50% of the lymphocytes isolated from the pancreatic draining lymph node of diabetic patients recognized a segment of the insulin A chain. Healthy control subjects, by contrast, do not show a similar accumulation of insulin segment-recognizing lymphocytes.52 A type of immune cell called antigen-presenting cell plays an important role in such immune recognition process. Specifically, it captures protein fragments from dying beta-cells and 'displays' it to the convening lymphocytes in the pancreatic draining lymph nodes. In 2006, it was reported that the cell-surface protein that binds to and displays the insulin A fragment on the antigen-presenting cells is encoded by a gene known to confer genetic susceptibility to diabetes.53

At the level of adipocytes and myocytes, insulin can be visualized as a crank—a device that transmits rotary motion—and the insulin receptor protein as a crank-shaft embedded in the cell membrane. In the Dysox Model of diabetes, insulin resistance can then be seen as a "rusted"crank-shaft of insulin receptor which is "impacted" in a "hardened" cell membrane, and so cannot be turned by the insulin crank.

Diabetes As a Dysfunction of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Proteins

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of proteins that serve as "metabolic brakes" located within the cellular powerhouses.19-21 These proteins uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation, and provide counter-regulatory mechanisms operating at the very foundational levels of human bioenergetics—a cooling system, so to, speak, in times of "overheated" electron transfer events. (What an elegant example of Nature's preoccupation with complementarity and contrariety in its management of energy economy!) If one were to accept that diabetes, first and foremost, is a bioenergetic dysfunction, one would expect to find in it clear evidence of dysfunctional mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. That, indeed, is the case.

The production of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in beta-cells is increased in obesity-related diabetes, 19 indicating increased mitochondrial response to factors that accelerate the electron transfer reactions—an effect predicted by the Dysox Model of diabetes. Another dimension of the role of UCP in the pathogenesis of diabetes is revealed in experimental animals in which UCP2 overexpression is associated with impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). I might add that a nuclear receptor called the short heterodimer partner (SHP) is also involved with GSIS, as well as with some key cell membrane channels. For example, SHP overexpression increases the glucose sensitivity of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels and increases the ATP/ADP ratio.54 In healthy animals, overexpression of SHP enhances GSIS in normal islets, and restores this function in animals with UCP2-overexpressing islets. This represents another mechanism by which overwrought molecular "braking systems" can be loosened up. There are yet other noteworthy aspects of SHP. Methylpyruvate is an energy fuel that bypasses glycolysis and directly enters the Krebs cycle. SHP overexpression also corrects the impaired sensitivity of UCP2-overexpressing beta-cells to methylpyruvate.

Diabetes As A Dysfunction of Paracrine and Endocrine Roles of Adipocytes

Adipose tissue governs the body's energy economy (homeostasis) in many important ways.55 Specifically, it modulates all aspects of human metabolism by releasing a host of signalling, hormonal, appetite-modifying, and proinflammatory substances called cytokines, including: (1) non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA); (2) glycerol; (3) leptin (generally an appetite-suppressing hormone)27,28; (4) suppression of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins36; (5) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)18; (6) proinflammatory cytokines 22-24; (7) retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) which induces insulin resistance through reduced phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) signalling 37; (8) overexpression in muscle of gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in a retinol-dependent mechanism 56; and (8) adiponectin, an insulin sensitizer,30 which stimulates fatty acid oxidation in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- (PPAR-)-dependent manner.32-34 In health, all of the above molecular pathways play Dr. Jekyll roles and regulate the cellular energy economy with physiological limits. In obesity and diabetes, those Dr. Jekylls turn into molecular Mr. Hydes and set the stage for incremental accumulation of fats in adipocytes. For example, non-esterified fatty acids in excess induce insulin resistance and impair beta-cell function. Stated simply, fat becomes fattening.

Diabetes As a Dysfunction of Molecular Signalling

In diabetes, there is abnormal expression of several important signalling molecules. One of the best studied of such molecules is the transcription factor PPAR-ã.32-34, 57 Impaired activity of this factor disrupts molecular energetics in many ways, including diminished glycolysis, impaired citric acid cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In obesity and diabetes, PPAR-alpha is weakly expressed in adipose tissue, and is associated with profound metabolic derangements across all tissues. There is an increase in lactate and a profound decrease in glucose and a number of amino acids, such as glutamine and alanine.58 The SHP dynamics appear to be independent of the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since a PPAR gamma antagonist did not block it. Another line of experimental evidence which supports the dysox model of diabetes concerns a protein called nuclear respiratory factor-1 ( (NRF-1).35 Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with reduced expression of multiple NRF-1-dependent genes, which encode several key enzymes involved with oxidative phosphorylation and some mitochondrial function.

 

 

Diabetes As a Disorder of Glycation

Sugars adduct to nearly all normal cellular constituents—proteins, enzymes, fats, redox-restorative, and oxystatic substances—and renders them dysfunctional. Beyond a certain point, this process produces irreversible permutations of those molecules to produce the toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs).59,60 The rate of such transformations—the "sugarization" of non-sugars of the body is useful for patient education—increases with rising intracellular levels of sugars. Glycosylation of hemoglobin (the basis of the HbA1C test for monitoring the results of diabetes treatment) is the best known example of sugarization of a vitally important protein which renders it functionally impaired. AGEs form by several chemical reactions, some of which are blocked by thiamine and nenfotiamine (via reactions faciltated by transketolase and related enzymes61), and inflict oxidative damage on endothelial, neural, and other cellular populations. I discuss this crucial at length in Integrative Cardiology, the sixth volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine.62Here in the context of the dysox model of diabetes, the crucial point is this: all

abnormalities of mitochondrial electron transfer reactions, the Krebs cycle, the glycolytic pathways, and critical detox mechanisms encountered in diabetes and presented above occur to greater degrees in endothelial, neural, retinal, and renal tissues than in other tissues of the body. I draw support for this statement from the established facts of much higher susceptibility of those tissues to impaired molecular bioenergetics seen in diabetes.

Diabetes As An Inflammatory Dysfunction

Injury is inevitable in an organism's struggle for survival. Healing is the intrinsic capacity of the organism to repair damage inflicted by that injury. Inflammation is the energetic-molecular mosaic of that intrinsic capacity. This energetic view of inflammation extends far beyond the classical and wholly inadequate notion of it being a process characterized by edema, erythema, tenderness, pain, and infiltrate of inflammatory cells. In my May 2005 Townsend Letter column, I marshalled a large body of clinical and experimental data to show that all molecular and cellular components of the pathophysiology of inflammation are directly or indirectly governed by oxygen signalling.63 In this column, I extend that concept of inflammation to the pathogenesis of both obesity and diabetes by pointing out that all information presented in the preceding sections supports the view. Specifically, in both obesity and diabetes impaired oxygen signalling is phenomenon common to all aspects of impeded Krebs cycle and glycolytic pathways, altered free radical dynamics, impaired molecular signalling, proinflammatory cytokines, AGEs, and the immunology of insulin presented above.

The crucial clinical significance of the above "inflammatory view" of obesity and diabetes is this: All elements that cause chronic inflammation must be recognized as "obesitizing" and "diabetizing" influences. Equally important is the recognition that no strategies for the prevention of diabetes and de-diabetization, complete or partial, can be considered complete if they do not effectively address all proinflammatory influences. such seen feed the pathophysiology of cause , sections of ory oxygen signalling is the common thread support my view dysox model of the pathophysiology of inflammation.

The Dysox Model of Diabetes

Simply stated, there are three primary sets of elements that create the complex conditions which are simplistically labelled as diabetes: (1) toxic environment; (2) toxic foods; and (3) toxic thoughts. This is the only way it is possible to make some sense of spreading diabetes epidemics in all countries of the world—the greater the degrees of toxicity produced by those elements in any given country, the wider the epidemic. The U.S. has the lamentable distinction of being the front-runner in the world. From those toxicities arise all the known molecular and cellular disruptions of diabetes which are schematically shown in Figure 1.

 

Figure 1. A Simplified Schema of the Dysox Model

of the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

 

Figure sent separately by regular mail

 

Picture of a tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1998, I proposed the dysox model of disease as a unifying concept of dysfunctional molecular bioenergetics that are clinically expressed as diverse disease states on the basis of varying environmental, nutritional, stress-related, and genetic factors.64-66 This model has two primary strengths: (1) It focuses on quantifiable abnormalities of molecular bioenergetics as the basis of cellular and tissue injury; and (2) It provides clear scientific basis and/or rationale for integrative plans for arresting and/or reversing chronic disease. In 2001, I published an extensive review of the epidemiological, clinical, bioenergetic, and experimental aspects of insulin resistance and diabetes in a three-part article entitled "Beyond Insulin Resistance—The Oxidative-Dysoxygenative Model of Insulin Dysfunction (ODID)" published in Townsend Letter (available at www.jintmed.com). In that series, I discussed altered dynamics of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, resistin, leptin, TNF-á, PPAR-ã, and some proinflammatory cytokines. Above, I review some recent advances in the knowledge of the immunology of insulin and beta cells of the pancreas, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs), altered paracrine and endocrine functions of adipocytes, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to shed additional light on the dysox model of diabetes.

De-Diabetization Strategies

In my view, the four crucial components of the de-diabetization regimens, for complete or partial success, are: (1) choices in the kitchen; (2) fat-burning exercises (presented at length in my book The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise67; (3) restoration of bowel ecology; and (4) optimization of the hepatic metabolic and detoxification functions. Beyond that, it is important to investigate and address other co-existing endocrine and neurotransmission dysfunctions. As to the third element of restoring bowel ecology, in December 2006, Nature published two landmark reports and an accompanying commentary which documented the impact of gut microbiota on the body's energy balance in mice and humans.68-70 Specifically, obese human and mice showed an increase in the gut population of Firmicute species while those of Bacteroides species—normally accounting for more than 50% of microbial species of human micrbiome—were decreased. These observations shed some light on the mechanisms which underlie the observed weight loss with therapies that restore the digestive-absorptive dysfunctions and restore the gut mictobiota.

In my Townsend column of October 2006 entitled "Hurt Human habitat and Energy Deficit—Healing Through the Restoration of Krebs Cycle Chemistry,"71 I presented the regimens which I prescribe for effectively addressing the bowel- and liver-related issues in chronic disorders. I find the same regimens equally effective to address those issues for my patients with diabetes. In that article, I also briefly outlined my approach to addressing other existing hormonal issues (concering the thyroid, adrenals, and neuroendocrine systems). I refer the readers interested in detailed discussion of those subject to Integrative Nutritional Medicine, the fifth volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine (2002).72 My essential clinical priorities are: (1) very low-carbohydrate diet; (2) high-frequency, low-intensity, predominantly lipolytic, lmbic exercise (described and discussed at length in Limbic Exercise; and (3) the restoration of bowel, blood, and liver ecosystems.

Guidelines for Nutritional and Herbal Support for De-Diabetization

In my October 2006 column, I presented my herbal, nutrient, and detox choices for: (1) herbal protocols for restoring the gut ecology; (2) castor oil packs and other measures for liver detoxification; (3) adrenal, thyroid, and gonadal support, when needed; (4) antioxidant and oxystatic vitamin and mineral supplementation; (5) slow, sustained limbic exercise; and (6) meditative approach for coping with lifestyle stressors. Below, I offer some menu suggestions and guidelines for specific herbal remedies that I have found to be specially valuable in achieving optimal glycemic control:

Optimal Breakfast Choices for Diabetes

Dr. Ali's Breakfast on five to six days per week comprising: (1) two tablespoons of a protein powder containing 85 to 90 percent calories in proteins and peptides; (2) two tablespoons of a granular lecithin; (3) two tablespoons of freshly ground flaxseed [the use of a coffee grinder recommended); (4) 12 to 16 ounces of organic vegetable juice [avoiding or minimizing the use of carrots and red beets; and (5) 12 to 16 ounces of water. A few ounces of seltzer water or a few drops of lemon juice may be added to suit personal taste. I personally consume this mixture in portions of six to eight ounces with my morning nutrient and herbal protocols during the period of my morning exercise, mediation, and preparation for work. I have not yet encountered any negative impact of the protein content in this breakfast on renal function. Still, individuals with serum creatinine levels above the normal range need to be monitored for renal function.

Optimal Lunch Choices for Diabetes

Large salad with goat cheese, chicken, or fish

Uncooked, steamed, or lightly stir-fried vegetables

Mid-Afternoon Snack

Use four to six ounces of the Dr. Ali's breakfast mixture (prepared in the morning and carried to work).

Optimal Dinner Choices for Diabetes

First take uncooked, steamed, or lightly stir-fried vegetables to the fill. Next add proteins (fish, poultry, turkey, lamb. organic game meats, and beef. Pasta, bread, rice and other starches should be taken in minimal amounts (just for taste). I ask my patients with diabetes never to allow bread to appear on the table (for them) before vegetables and animal proteins. In my experience, de-diabetization plans with vegetarian diets generally yield poor results.

Phytofactors of Special value for Diabetes

The use of herbs for optimizing blood sugar control and for de-diabetizing efforts requires considerable clinical experience. As in the case of phytofactor remedies for chronic disorders, it is my clinical practice to prescribe herbal remedies for my diabetic patients in rotation. My preferred phytofactors are the following: neem tree bark or leaves, bitter lemon, gymnema sylvestre, fenugreek, fennel seeds, licorice extract, green tea, and peau deA'rco. The following are other options: aloe, banaba, bitter lemon, cinnamon herb powder, cayenne, licorice extract, guggle, huckleberry, juniper berries, yarrow, and yellow gentian. I also liberally prescribe vanadyl sulfate in my program.

An Illustrative Case-History of De-Diabetization

A 70-year-old man presented to the Institute on June 5, 2003 with the following health issues: (1) uncontrolled diabetes of 22 years duration; (2) gastroesophageal reflux disorder; (3) colonic diverticulitis; (4) benign prostate hyperplasia; and (5) chronic fatigue. His HbA1c level was 11.1 despite the use of Glucophage and Glucontrol. Table 2 displays the data for 4-hour glucose tolerance and insulin profile.

Table 2. Case The Blood Glucose and Insulin Values of a 70-Year-Old Man Prior to Beginning a De-Diabetization Program

Time

Blood Glucose

mg/dL

Blood Insulin

uIU/mL

Fasting

137

2.7

One hour after glucose load

254

9.6

Two hours after glucose load

244

28.7

Three hours

183

23.5

Four hours

129

9.1

Other pertinent laboratory values were as follows: (1)Hb, 14.7 gm/dL; WBC, 5,200; (2) an abnormally low value of T3-Uptake (0.7 units); (3) homocysteine value (11.4 umol/L; (4) dysautonomia (sympathetic-overdrive and arasympathetic deficit) as determined by a power spectral scan of heart rate variablity; (5) PSA, 0.66 ng/mL; (6) Lead, aluminum, arsenic, nickel, and tin overload (measured with DMSA provocation; (7) insulin-like growth factor, 66 ng/mL; (8) cholesterol 177 mg/dL; and HDL cholesterol 47 mg/dL;(9) Raised levels of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Candida, and other mold species. He complied well to my de-diabetization regimen, but was unable to follow my recommended exercise program for reason of long-established work habits. Table 3 shows the data for a period of follow-up of 28 months.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3. Effect of Food Choices on the De-Diabetization Process In a 70-Year-Old Man With Diabetes Diagnosed In 1981. The Three-Hour Glucose Tolerance Values then Were: 196 (Fasting), 358,373, and 330

Date

Drugs

Weight

Pounds

Diet/Nutrient

Compliance

Exercise

HbA1c

6.5.2003

Glucpphage

+ Glucontrol

206

Good

None

11.4

7.3.2003

None

206

Good

None

8.3

9.11.2003

None

200

Good

None

7.5

10.30.2003

None

200

Moderate

None

6.9

12.4.2003

None

200

Moderate

None

7.0

7.15.2004

None

168

Good

None

6.0

9.14.2004

None

170

Good

None

<6.0

11.11.2004

None

170

Good

None

5.9

10.6.2005

None

170

Moderate

None

6.3

1.10.2006

None

180

Moderate

None

6.4

10.31.2006

None

182

Good

None

5.9

 

Closing Comments

In closing, I want to underscore the two crucial messages of this column: First, a clear understanding of the energetic consequences of the respiratory-to-fermentative shift in the dysox state is crucial to a complete comprehension of the Dysox Model of diabetes. The primary biochemical evidence for that model presented here concerns increased urinary excretion of metabolites of the Krebs cycle and glycolytic pathways for generation of ATP. In essence, the respiratory-to-fermentative shift with waste of organic intermediates represents a costly metabolic error that eventually affects all cell populations in the body. That is the energetic basis of all known complications of diabetes involving all organ-systems of the body.

Second, and equally important, is the understanding that no interventional strategies for the prevention of diabetes and de-diabetization, complete or partial, can be considered complete if they do not effectively address all elements that threaten oxygen homeostasis and feed the pathophysiology of diabetes, especially those related to spiritual dysequilibrium, lack of exercise, and the bowel blood ecosystems. Thus, the mere prescriptions for oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin regimens along with carbohydrate restrictions cannot be accepted as optimal management of diabetes. In the context of the gut ecology, consider the following quote from the December 21, 2006 issue of Nature70:

Gordon and colleagues' results tempt consideration of how we might manipulate the microbiotic environment to treat or prevent obesity...The two paper nonetheless open up an intriguing line of scientific enquiry that will ally microbiologists with nutritionist, physiologists, and neuroscientists in the fight against obesity.

There is something profoundly ironic in the above statement. For centuries, holistic physicians have cared for the sick with a sharp focus on the bowel flora. In recent decades, I have published more than fifty articles describing my clinical, pathologic, and biochemical observations concerning the altered states of gut ecology and their adverse consequences. The readers can obtain a compendium of many of those articles in my book Darwin, Dysox, and Disease, the eleventh volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine (2002).73

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59. Sullivan KA, Feldman EL. New developments in diabetic neuropathy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2005;18:586-90.

60. Xie XM, Yang ZW, Chen MF. . Effects of advanced glycation endproducts on the activity of NF-kappaB and the expression of fibronectin mRNA in the endothelial cells in aged rats. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006;31:883-7.

61. Després J-P, Lemieux I. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2006;444: 881-887.

62. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume VI: Integrative Cardiology and Chelation Therapies: The Oxidative-Dysoxygenative Model and Chelation Therapies.2006. New York. Canary 21 Press. 2000. 2nd edition 2006.

63. Ali M. Oxygen governs the inflammatory response and adjudicates the man-microbe conflicts. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2005;262:98-103.

64. Ali M: Under Darwin's Glow (editorial). J Integrative Medicine 1999. 3:1

65. Ali M: Darwin, fatigue, and fibromyalgia.J Integrative Medicine 1999;3:5-10.

66. Ali M: Darwin, oxidosis, dysoxygenosis, and integration. J Integrative Medicine 1999;3:11-16.

67. Ali M: The Ghoraa and Limbic Exercise. Denville, New Jersey, Life Span Books 1993.

68. Turnbaugh.PJ, Ley RU, Mahowald MA, et al. An obesity-related gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006;444:1027-31.

69. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, et al. Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006;444:1022.

70. Bajzer M, Seeley RJ. Obesity and gut flora. Nature. 2006;444:1009-1010.

71. Ali Ali M. Hurt Human habitat and Energy Deficit—Healing Through the Restoration of Krebs Cycle Chemistry. Townsend Letter. October 2006:112-116.

72. Ali M. The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine Volume V: Integrative Nutritional Medicine: Nutrition Seen Through the Prism of Oxygen Homeostasis. 2005. New York. Canary 21 Press. 1999. 2nd edition .

73. Ali M. Darwin, Dysox, and Disease, the eleventh volume of The Principles and Practice of Integrative Medicine (2002) New York. Canary 21 Press. END

 

 

 

 

 

 

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