WIKI-MEDICAL
 

A Medical Encyclopedia Dedicated to Science, Health, and Healing, Sharply Focusing on Natural Medicine                           

 
Welcome
Vision and Mission
Why Should You Use Wiki-Medical?
Founder & Reviews
Molecular Biology of Oxygen, Basic
Molecular Biology of Oxygen, Advanced
Insulin-Diabetes
Nutrition
Environment
Allergy
Obesity
Aging
Alimentary Tract
Brain
Endocrine
Ethics
Brain
Musculo-sketal
Philosophy
 
Microbiology
Children's Learning Fields
Lap Dog Journalists
Inflammation & Immunity
Cardiovascular Disorders
History
Cancer
Mental Health
 Energy Healing
The Soul's Sweat Stories
Stress
 
 
Skin
Pulmonary
Reproductive System
Urinary System
Video and CD Seminars
You Tube Library
   

 

Environmental Carcinogens

Majid Ali, M.D.

What is a carcinogen? It is a chemical compound that directly causes cancer or increases the risk of the development of cancer by indirect mechanisms. These compounds exert their pernicious effects by altering the structure and/or functions of genes, sometimes expressing (activating) them and silencing (inactivating) them.

How Is Carcinogenicity of Environmental Pollutants Determined?

What substances can be considered carcinogenic (cancer causing) in humans? The evidence for some substances—tobacco smoke, DDT, chlordane, xenoestrogens are among the notable examples—is incontestable. However, these represent a very small percentage of an estimated 80,000 chemicals introduced in human environment during the last 100 years. For most of these materials, there cannot be any simple answer to the question about their carcinogenicity for the following reasons:

1. There is no acceptable research model that can determine the cancer-causing risk of environmental chemicals.

2. The carcinogenic effects of most environmental chemicals are cumulative and mostly delayed.

3. The carcinogenic effects of most pollutants are compounded when these co-exist in human environments.

4. There is remarkable variability in vulnerability to carcinogens in different individuals.

5. Chemical carcinogens become more potent in the presence of microbial toxins.

6. Chemical carcinogens become more potent in the presence of toxic metals, such as mercury, lead, and others.

7. Chemical carcinogens become more potent in the presence of nutrient deficiencies.

Notwithstanding, there is some value in the information provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Following is the partial list of chemicals designated as "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens."

Reasonably Anticipated To Be Human Carcinogens(87 KB)

Substance Profiles

Acetaldehyde(124 KB)

2-Acetylaminofluorene(90 KB)

Acrylamide(115 KB)

Acrylonitrile(106 KB)

Adriamycin(90 KB)

Aflatoxins(103 KB)

Alcoholic Beverage Consumption(83 KB)

2-Aminoanthraquinone(109 KB)

o-Aminoazotoluene(82 KB)

4-Aminobiphenyl(141 KB)

1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone(92 KB)

1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone(108 KB)

Amitrole(137 KB)

o-Anisidine and Its Hydrochloride(108 KB)

Aristolochic Acids(216 KB)

Arsenic and Inorganic Arsenic Compounds(109 KB)

Asbestos(107 KB)

Azacitidine(96 KB)

Azathioprine(87 KB)

Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride(102 KB)

Benzene(156 KB)

Benzidine and Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine(190 KB)

Benzidine

Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine (Benzidine Dye Class)

Benzotrichloride(94 KB)

Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds(106 KB)

2,2-Bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Technical Grade)(85 KB)

Bis(chloromethyl) Ether and Technical-Grade Chloromethyl Methyl Ether(94 KB)(91.66KB)

Bromodichloromethane(100 KB)

1,3-Butadiene(136 KB)

1,4-Butanediol Dimethanesulfonate(79 KB)

Butylated Hydroxyanisole(94 KB)

Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds(116 KB)

Captafol(201 KB)

Carbon Tetrachloride(163 KB)

Ceramic Fibers (Respirable Size)(102 KB)

Chlorambucil(89 KB)

Chloramphenicol(154 KB)

Chlorendic Acid(91 KB)

Chlorinated Paraffins (C12, 60% Chlorine)(96 KB)

Chloroform(178 KB)

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene(91 KB)

4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine(115 KB)

Chloroprene(105 KB)

p-Chloro-o-toluidine and Its Hydrochloride(160 KB)

Chromium Hexavalent Compounds(136 KB)

Cisplatin(141 KB)

Coal Tars and Coal-Tar Pitches(110 KB)

Cobalt Sulfate(148 KB)

Cobalt Tungsten Carbide: Powders and Hard Metals(175 KB)

Coke-Oven Emissions(88 KB)

p-Cresidine(126 KB)

Cupferron(83 KB)

Cyclophosphamide(109 KB)

Cyclosporin A(144 KB)

Dacarbazine(128 KB)

Danthron(128 KB)

2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate(129 KB)

2,4-Diaminotoluene(98 KB)

Diazoaminobenzene(133 KB)

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane(140 KB)

1,2-Dibromoethane(117 KB)

2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol(123 KB)

1,4-Dichlorobenzene(122 KB)

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and Its Dihydrochloride(123 KB)

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(165 KB)

1,2-Dichloroethane(158 KB)

Dichloromethane(160 KB)

1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade)(125 KB)

Diepoxybutane(126 KB)

Diesel Exhaust Particulates(116 KB)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate(183 KB)

Diethylstilbestrol(162 KB)

Diethyl Sulfate(139 KB)

Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether(122 KB)

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine and Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine(138 KB)

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine

Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine Dye Class)

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene(139 KB)

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine and Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine(184 KB)

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine

Dyes Metabolized to 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine Dye Class)

Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride(124 KB)

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine(141 KB)

Dimethyl Sulfate(136 KB)

Dimethylvinyl Chloride(121 KB)

1,4-Dioxane(174 KB)

Disperse Blue(140 KB)

Epichlorohydrin(181 KB)

Erionite(87 KB)

Estrogens, Steroidal(138 KB)

Ethylene Oxide(195 KB)

Ethylene Thiourea(117 KB)

Ethyl Methanesulfonate(88 KB)

Formaldehyde(287 KB) [See Addendum]

Furan(171 KB)

Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)(209 KB)

Glycidol(138 KB)

Hepatitis B Virus(103 KB)

Hepatitis C Virus(104 KB)

Heterocyclic Amines (Selected)(239 KB)

2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline

2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

Hexachlorobenzene(183 KB)

Hexachloroethane(171 KB)

Hexamethylphosphoramide(142 KB)

Human Papillomaviruses: Some Genital-Mucosal Types(112 KB)

Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate(175 KB)

Hydrazobenzene(147 KB)

Ionizing Radiation(203 KB)

X-Radiation and Gamma Radiation

Neutrons

Radon

Thorium Dioxide

Iron Dextran Complex(93 KB)

Isoprene(200 KB)

Kepone(146 KB)

Lead and Lead Compounds(142 KB)

Lindane, Hexachlorocyclohexane (Technical Grade), and Other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers(174 KB)

Melphalan(137 KB)

Methoxsalen with Ultraviolet A Therapy(152 KB)

2-Methylaziridine(145 KB)

4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)(168 KB)

4,4'-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine(99 KB)

4,4'-Methylenedianiline and Its Dihydrochloride(164 KB)

Methyleugenol(157 KB)

Methyl Methanesulfonate(127 KB)

Metronidazole(101 KB)

Michler s Ketone(137 KB)

Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated(95 KB)

Mirex(166 KB)

Mustard Gas(139 KB)

Naphthalene(170 KB)

2-Naphthylamine(148 KB)

Nickel Compounds and Metallic Nickel(137 KB)

Nickel Compounds

Metallic Nickel

Nitrilotriacetic Acid(153 KB)

o-Nitroanisole(146 KB)

Nitroarenes (Selected)(339 KB)

1,6-Dinitropyrene

1,8-Dinitropyrene

6-Nitrochrysene

1-Nitropyrene

4-Nitropyrene

Nitrobenzene(156 KB)

Nitrofen(100 KB)

Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride(151 KB)

Nitromethane(149 KB)

2-Nitropropane(154 KB)

N-Nitrosamines: 15 Listings(445 KB)

N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine

N-Nitrosodiethanolamine

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine

N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea

4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine

N-Nitrosomorpholine

N-Nitrosonornicotine

N-Nitrosopiperidine

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

N-Nitrososarcosine

Nitrosourea Chemotherapeutic Agents(294 KB)

Bis(chloroethyl) Nitrosourea

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea

Chlorozotocin

Streptozotocin

o-Nitrotoluene(207 KB)

Norethisterone(146 KB)

Ochratoxin A(182 KB)

4,4'-Oxydianiline(149 KB)

Oxymetholone(111 KB)

Phenacetin and Analgesic Mixtures Containing Phenacetin(105 KB)

Phenacetin

Analgesic Mixtures Containing Phenacetin

Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride(137 KB)

Phenolphthalein(119 KB)

Phenoxybenzamine Hydrochloride(96 KB)

Phenytoin and Phenytoin Sodium(210 KB)

Polybrominated Biphenyls(169 KB)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls(148 KB)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: 15 Listings(218 KB)

Benz[a]anthracene

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

Benzo[a]pyrene

Dibenz[a,h]acridine

Dibenz[a,j]acridine

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene

Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

5-Methylchrysene

Procarbazine and Its Hydrochloride(156 KB)

Progesterone(167 KB)

1,3-Propane Sultone(147 KB)

ß-Propiolactone(110 KB)

Propylene Oxide(166 KB)

Propylthiouracil(147 KB)

Reserpine(109 KB)

Riddelliine(196 KB)

Safrole(156 KB)

Selenium Sulfide(143 KB)

Silica, Crystalline (Respirable Size)(106 KB)

Soots(88 KB)

Strong Inorganic Acid Mists Containing Sulfuric Acid(185 KB)

Styrene(363 KB)

Styrene-7,8-oxide(167 KB)

Sulfallate(137 KB)

Tamoxifen(186 KB)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(190 KB)

Tetrachloroethylene(181 KB)

Tetrafluoroethylene(157 KB)

Tetranitromethane(148 KB)

Thioacetamide(146 KB)

4,4'-Thiodianiline(106 KB)

Thiotepa(150 KB)

Thiourea(155 KB)

Tobacco-Related Exposures(156 KB)

Tobacco Smoking

Environmental Tobacco Smoke

SmokelessTobacco

Toluene Diisocyanates(196 KB)

o-Toluidine and Its Hydrochloride(122 KB)

Toxaphene(123 KB)

Trichloroethylene(213 KB)

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol(174 KB)

1,2,3-Trichloropropane(177 KB)

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) Phosphate(159 KB)

Ultraviolet Radiation Related Exposures(136 KB)

Solar Radiation

Exposure to Sunlamps or Sunbeds

Broad-Spectrum UVR

UVA

UVB

UVC

Urethane(177 KB)

4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene Diepoxide(149 KB)

Vinyl Halides (Selected)(166 KB)

Vinyl Bromide

Vinyl Chloride

Vinyl Fluoride

Wood Dust(106 KB)

 

 

 

 Carcinogens