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Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, and Polymenorrhea in CFS and Fibromyalgia Are Caused by Oxidative Menstrual Dysfunction

Majid Ali, M.D.

ABSTRACT

It is proposed that amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and polymenorrhea in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia are aspects of an "oxidative menstrual dysfunction" (OMD-I) that occurs as a consequence of global oxidative damage to microecologic cellular and macroecologic tissue-organ ecosystems of the body. Thus, OMD-I is considered as one facet of the broad spectrum of accelerated oxidative injury to: (1) matrix, plasma membranes, and mitcochondria (3M ecologies); (2) coagulation cascade, complement system, and capsases (3C pathways); (4) enzyme pathways involved with oxygen transport and utilization; (5) enzymes pathways involved with synthesis of sex and non-sex hormones; (6) enzyme pathways involved in hormone receptor synthesis; and (7) regulatory dynamics hormone gene activation. In support of the OMD-I model, case histories of ten patients with amenorrhea and 18 patients with oligomenorrhea or polymenorrhes are presented in whom the menstrual function was normalized without the use of synthetic estrogens or other forms hormones.

From the Departments of Medicine of Capital University of Integral Medicine, Washington, D.C., and Institute of Integrative Medicine, Denville, N.J. and New York, and the Department of Pathology of the college of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York.

Menstrual irregularities in CFS and fibromyalgia are common and are generally assumed to be due to gonadal insufficiency. The standard therapies for such disorders employ a variety of regimens of synthetic hormones to correct the putative estrogen deficiency. The OMD-I model challenges that view and proposes oxidative pathogenetic mechanisms for hormones-receptor-gene dysregulations in fibromyalgia and CFS. Furthermore, normalization of menstruation in such disorders with therapies that restore oxidatively damaged bowel, blood, and liver ecosystems provides a new insight into the relationship between pathophysiology of those organs and menstrual dysfunction. Some essential aspects of redox and hormonal homeostasis are reviewed to underscore the enormous complexities of the menstrual function, and to show that the prevailing use of synthetic hormones for menstrual dysregulation in fibromyalgia and CFS is neither rationale on theoretical basis nor acceptable on empirical grounds. Read More

Related Tutorials

* Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, and Polymenorrhea in CFS and Fibromyalgia Are Caused by Oxidative Menstrual Dysfunction

* The Unifying Oxygen Model of Gonadal Health

 

 

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The Unifying Oxygen Model of Gonadal Health

* Amenorrhea, Oligomenorrhea, and Polymenorrhea in CFS and Fibromyalgia Are Caused by Oxidative Menstrual Dysfunction

* Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) or Receptor Restoration Therapy (RRT)?

* Pro-inflammatory Roles of Estrogens

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